Pacific northwest forest ecosystem in Scotland

As part of the research for my book, The New Sylva, I visited recently a remarkable place in Scotland where many so-called exotic coniferous species are not only thriving but are forming a functioning forest ecosystem similar to that found in the Pacific northwest of America. There are … Read More


Forest, woodland, copse or spinney

In modern English forest and woodland are used interchangeably. Forest is more often used to describe a large area of trees in the landscape, sometimes being linked with economic productivity, than the term woodland. However, they are very loosely defined terms, at least in popular language. I explore the origins for forest and woodland, and… Read More